Archive for December, 2012

The events of Friday morning in Connecticut were profoundly disturbing to me, more so than any of the random acts of brutality that have become all too common in today’s world. I think it has ripped my heart out for two reasons.

First, in this situation, many of the victims were under 10 years old. I am 50 years old but do not as of yet have any grandchildren. However, there is one five-year girl at my church that is my little sweetheart. In a sense, she is my adopted grandchild. Ryley Sloan has taken to me and she runs to me every time she sees me at church. She wants to go home with us every Sunday. If this sweet adorable girl were shot and killed by someone I would be grieved beyond belief. Ryley is my little sweetheart because she has this wide-open wide-eyed innocence that is infectious to all those who come in contact with her. She is not jaded by experience. She is not embittered from a difficult life. She is just happy. She has joy. To cut that little ball of energy’s life would slice me to the core.

Second, my oldest daughter is a school teacher. Meghan teaches at an elementary school in Pickens County. She could have been gunned down protecting her children like I know that she would do. She loves teaching. She loves her kids. They get on her nerves at times just as any teacher will tell you. But, I know in my heart that Meghan would give her life for these kids as some of the teachers and administrators did in Newtown, CT. Being a teacher is a calling and she has the bug. To think of having my oldest daughter’s life taken away in this manner is a numbing thought. To lose my Meghan, and to lose her in that way, would be absolutely devastating.

I think that each of us has reacted similarly. Either you have children still at home that causes you to think along these same lines. Possibly you have a child that is 5-10 years old and I can only imagine the chills that these events have caused you. Maybe you have grandchildren. We all share these feelings of innocence shattered. We all ask why these innocent, beautiful children were taken from their families at the hands of a disturbed young man.

After having two days to process all of this there are several things that have burned into my heart. First, the gun control debate has its extremes on both sides but the fact that both sides have jumped all over Facebook espousing their positions and I have repeatedly said that now is NOT the time. Heck, I have even been accused of being anti-gun because of this. Second, both sides of gun control debate are arguing on the wrong of the debate. We should be debating what happens before hand guns are used. All of this discussion should lead us to see that now is the time for Christ followers to become bold, to take the gospel to the streets, to loosen the foothold that evil has on our world.

The first thing that I would like to discuss is the nature of this whole gun control debate. First, let’s get this straight. I am neither pro-gun or anti-gun. My posts on Facebook have been solely asking for restraint for the moment in making the events of Friday into a gun control debate. Yes, it was directed at those who typically jump on Facebook as soon as any multiple death shooting occurs and starts shouting about our inalienable right to own guns. Typically, you do not hear this from the anti-gun lobby or maybe I just don’t have any anti-gun Facebook friends. My issue is not about the fact that these people support unrestricted gun ownership but rather having respect for the dead. Posting that an average of 18.5 people are killed in mass shootings when only the police are armed compared with 2.2 people being killed when armed citizens are the first responders. The savings of 16.3 lives is supposed to be impressive. Any loss of life whether 2.2 or 18.5 is too many. However, this sentiment is callous when you consider that there are parents grieving the loss of their own “little Kylies” or their “teacher daughters”. It is just as inconsiderate to for M.A.D.D. supporter to hand out flyers at a funeral for a child killed by a drunk driver. There will be a time for the debate over guns. Now is not the time. Posting a quote from Penn Jillete, an admittedly outspoken atheist, about governments taking away our rights (a reference to gun ownership) is off point. As a result, I have been accused of being anti-gun. Although I do not own a firearm and have no intentions of owning one, I do not oppose your owning a gun to defend your home. My point is simply that we should be plastering Facebook with prayers for the families of the victims. We should be celebrating the short lives of 20 children. We should be celebrating the self-less acts of teachers and administrators some of whom who lost their lives. We should be celebrating the love these teachers have for their children. We should be celebrating the wonderful moments that our five year olds have us rolling in the floor laughing and them not knowing why they made us laugh so hard. The gun debate can wait. Let’s let these grieving parents bury their children. Let’s support their needs. Let’s honor their children’s memories. Every one of them has a “little Ryley”. There are husbands burying “their Meghan” school teachers.

The second point is that we as Christ followers should see that the anti-gun/pro-gun argument is the wrong end of the argument for us. When we are talking about protecting ourselves from evil or getting the guns off the street to prevent evil people from having guns, it is similar to arguing about what to do with the horse running around when the real problem is that we forgot to shut the barn door. We hide behind the argument of gun control and have forgotten our responsibility as Christ followers. We live in a fallen world – a world that needs our help. People in Connecticut and here in our own communities are often so lost, so far removed from God that they feel drawn to solve their problems in brutal ways. It is events like this past Friday that should be a clarion call for us as Christ followers to get off the couch. Get out in our neighborhoods. Get to know our neighbors one person at a time. Learn who they are. Develop relationships. Share the gospel with them once we have developed relationships. If there is hurt, people are susceptible to the evil ways of Satan. If people are hungry, people are susceptible to the evil ways of the devil. If people are lonely, they are prone to hear that deceptive call of the evil one. If people do not know Scripture, they are easily misled by the father of all lies. If they do not know grace through Jesus Christ, they will listen to Satan’s words that they are hopelessly mired in sin … why not dive deeper into it. They listen to the devil’s voice saying that killing is OK. This is where we should be focus our arguments. We should be arguing about the best ways to reach the lost. We would should be attacking evil at its source with love. Before someone decides to take another life in anger, hopelessness, should we, as Christ followers, already have been in their life – one or more of us. By saying that evil exists, we are not to resign ourselves to it and do nothing. We are to love the unloveable. We are to get out of our comfort zones and touch the untouchable. If we each reach out to one or two people that are outside our comfort zones over the next year, we can make a difference one person at a time. We do the same the next year. Each of us.

Being saved by grace comes with responsibility to spread the word of the good news. Being saved by grace is not something that we should keep to ourselves. Why do you think that God has not already ended the world? He wants everyone to have a chance to reconcile themselves to Him through Christ Jesus. How do we best honor the memories of these precious little children – to show the love of Christ to a dying, miserable, evil world? I pray that we together as Christ followers can do this? I pray for the day that we have spread the gospel so well that Jesus will weep with joy. So well that we see no need to defend ourselves – because we don’t have to! Call me and idealist and it’s impossible. Five years ago Lifesong Church did not exist but someone thought it possible to do the impossible. Is that not what Christ calls us to do – to change the world through love? To love our enemies. To turn our pitchforks into plowshares. To not live by the sword. To sacrifice everything for the jewel of great price? We are to be proactive not reactive. Shouldn’t seek ways to change the world from the inside out and not withdraw from it and resign ourselves that it is evil and do nothing? Let’s us join together and meet the world and share God’s love with it.

We owe to each of our own little Ryleys. We owe to each of our own teacher daughters. We owe it to the kids of Newtown, CT. We owe it to their teachers. We honor their memory through spreading the love of Christ to the fallen world that caused their death. In that way, we honor God. We defeat Satan!

One of the valuable lessons of an in-depth study of the Old Testament (OT) is the fact that the OT is not the unused two-thirds of the page volume of the Bible. It is the necessary beginning of and prelude to the New Testament. Bernhard Anderson once wrote, “The relation of the Old Testament to the New…is a question that confronts every Christian in the Church, whether he be a professional theologian, a pastor of a congregation, or a layman. It is no exaggeration to say that, on this question, hangs the meaning of the Christian faith.”[1] Therein lies the beauty of the OT in that it points forward to the New Testament (NT). The divine inspiration of the NT writers allowed them to see that Jesus was the fulfillment of what the OT was pointing toward. As a result, the NT writers quoted from the OT quite frequently. Their quoting of the OT is nowhere more pronounced than from the Book of Psalms. According to Kirkpatrick, various Psalms are referenced over 130 times in the NT.[2] If the overall theme of the Psalms can be found in Psalm 8:1, “Our Lord, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth”, then the New Testament writers saw that that Jesus was the subject of the Psalms. They saw that He was the incarnate God, the promised Messiah of the OT. Although Kirpatrick’s analysis identifies all Psalmic references in the New Testament, we will limit our discussion to the messianic psalms. These messianic psalms are the psalms that refer to an anointed ruler from the line of David who will rule over his kingdom with justice and compassion. They speak of a perfect ruler that was anticipated for Israel in light of the failures of the previous and current kings of the Jewish kingdom(s).[3] The NT writers understood Jesus to be that perfect ruler – the answer to the anticipation of these messianic psalms.


PSALMS 2 – The Messianic King and Son of God

Psalm 2 integrates both divine (messianic) and human (royal) kingship. The NT frequently alludes to psalm because Jesus is seen as the fulfillment of the promise to David. In this psalm, God counters the plotting of earthly kings by pointing to the establishment of His Son as the Messianic King. Verse 7 makes this a messianic psalm because God is addressing his Divine Son. With David as a witness (David is assumed to have penned this psalm), it reflects the promise made to David in 2 Samuel 7:14 that the ultimate king would rise from his line. However, until that time, the earthly kings of Israel are to reflect the qualities of the promised Messianic King. NT references to this Psalm include Acts 4:23-26, 13:33, Hebrews 1:5, 5:5, Revelation 2:27, 12:5, 19:15.


PSALMS 8 – Majestic God

This psalm speaks of the majesty of God as displayed in the universe and the world around us. It also praises God for making man in charge of or having dominion over the earth. This psalm describes the status of man as the head of all creation. Unspoken though is the fact that due to sin, man is not the perfect ruler of creation, the agent of God, that he was intended to be. It is somewhat messianic in its reference to the son of man in 8:4. However, it is a royal psalm as well in that earthly Israelite rulers were to be wise in the use of the resources of the earth that God had bestowed upon the nation of His chosen people. The particular power of this psalm as messianic is when the author of Hebrews makes direct quotation of 8:4-6 in Hebrews 2:6-8 in relation to Jesus Christ. It is through Christ that all things will be restored to their original Edenic order.


PSALMS 16 – The Resurrection of the Messiah

This psalm is purely messianic and not equally a royal psalm. This Psalm in verse 9-11 is quoted by Peter in Acts 2:25-28 and by Paul in Acts 13:35-36 and can only apply to Jesus Christ because only his body was not corrupted by the decay of death. The immediate sense of this psalm is that David is specifically asking for deliverance from the threat of death hanging over his head.


PSALMS 22 – The Crucifixion of the Messiah

Jesus repeats Psalm 22:1 from the cross. Jesus felt the abandonment of God in becoming the curse of sin on the cross. David writes of the abandonment he felt at the hands of his enemies. Other verses in this chapter describe His mockings (vs. 7-8), the piercing of His hands and feet (vs. 16) and His garments being parted (vs. 18). This psalm is referenced numerous times in the NT – Matthew 27:35-46, John 19:23-28, Hebrews 2:12.


PSALMS 40 – Submission of the Messiah to the Father

Psalm 40:6-7 is directly quoted by the author of Hebrews in 10:5-10. Here we see Jesus as the obedient servant in the flesh who accomplishes his Father’s goal of being the final, once-and-for-all sacrifice for sin. David writes of the vanity of people offering meaningless sacrifices and looks forward to a time when sacrifices are made from not a proud but an obedient heart. Jesus is the fulfillment of this desire who became the completion of the Old Testament sacrificial system.


PSALM 41 – Betrayal of the Messiah

Although David is responsible for many of his troubles in his life, David firmly believed in God to deliver him even from his own mistakes. He trusted that the Lord has a purpose for everything that he endured. John invokes Jesus’ complete trust in all things to His Father when Jesus quotes Psalm 41:9 (Even my close friend in whom I trusted, who ate my bread, has lifted his heel against me) when he predicts who will betray him in John 13:18 (I am not speaking of all of you; I know whom I have chosen. But the Scripture will be fulfilled, ‘He who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.’).


PSALM 45 – The Messiah Rules

This psalm is both a royal psalm and a messianic psalm. According to Craigie, this psalm was probably used in royal weddings during monarchy period of the Jewish nation. This psalm is messianic in that it anticipates the relationship between Christ and his church as described by Paul in Ephesians 5:25-32.[4] In Hebrews 1:8-9, we see a direct quote of Psalm 45:6-7. Just as the psalm recognizes that the earthly king David commands armies and should use them only for righteous purposes in 45:4, Ephesians 6:10-20 is a parallel in how Christ leads the church against the forces of evil. Jesus is the Messiah, the great and righteous ruler sitting on throne descended from David.


PSALM 68 – The Victory in the Messiah

In the New Testament, Paul quotes 68:17-19 in Ephesians 4:8-9 in reference to Jesus Christ. In a victory procession in ancient times, the victorious military leader would receive and give gifts to those conquered. Jesus in his ascension is welcomed as victor. On earth, as the just ruler, Jesus provides gives gifts, similar to a victorious military leader, but rather in this case it is because he cares for his people. Jesus himself is the gift. He is the “God of Salvation” in this psalm in that he saves his people from death. In Jesus, we have victory over death through His resurrection. We are rescued from our enemy, death and destruction, by the Messiah.


PSALMS 110 – The Exaltation of the Messiah

This psalm is quoted by NT writers the most. Peter sees the messianic qualities of this psalm when he quotes Psalms 110:1 in Acts 2:34 to prove that Jesus had taken His rightful place at the right hand of the Father. He scolds his Jewish audience in their inability to see all the messianic qualities of Jesus. If they had only understood Scripture, they would not have crucified Him. In Matthew 22:44, Jesus trips up the Pharisees by questioning whom David was talking about in Psalm 110. They could not answer how David could be talking about himself in the psalm. Thus, the NT makes it clear that the psalm is referring to Jesus when David says, “my Lord.” The promised Messiah is descended from David but yet He is greater than David. Other NT references to this psalm include Mark 12:36, Luke 20:43, Hebrews 1:13, Hebrews 5:6, Hebrews 7:17-21.


PSALM 118 – The Messiah as Cornerstone

This Psalm speaks of Messiah as the cornerstone that was rejected by many but honored by the Lord and His people in 118:22-26. The Apostle Peter in Matthew 21:42, connects the meaning of this Psalm to Jesus Christ, “The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; this was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes.” Jesus also quoted 118:22-23 when referring to himself in Mark 12:10-11, in Matthew 23:29, and in Luke 13:35. Jesus says what is considered low and insignificant by his contemporaries, referring to Himself, will be exalted to the chief place. In Ephesians 2:20, Jesus is the cornerstone cast away on the cross by earthly rulers trying to preserve their position (who cannot in the end preserve them) while Jesus is exalted to the right hand of God the Father Almighty. In his exaltation, the supposed defeat at the grave has been reversed turning a day that would have been a day of despair into a day of celebration. Like the Psalms triumphant praise, Christ has gained victory on the cross.


The NT writers understood the OT. These men knew the OT Scriptures well. After Pentecost, the Holy Spirit empowered them to see how Jesus was the fulfillment of the OT. There is no separateness of the OT from the NT. The OT points to Jesus. The NT points back to the OT to say that Jesus is the One. The NT writers understood Jesus was the One and they have testify forward to us that those who believe in Jesus as the Messiah promised by the OT we will have everlasting life in Him. We respond by singing praises to Him we know as Messiah just as the Psalms were songs singing praises to Him they longed for.

[1] Bernhard Anderson, ed., The Old Testament and Christian Faith (New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1963), 1.

[2] A. F. Kirkpatrick, The Book of Psalms (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1902), 544-549.

[3] Grisanti, Michael A., “The Book of Psalms” (Chapter 40) in Eugene H. Merrill, Mark F. Rooker, and Michael A. Grisanti, The World and the Word: an Introduction to the Old Testament (Nashville, TN.: B&H Academic, 2011), 518.


[4] P.C. Craigie, “Psalms 1-50” in editors, [general, Bruce M. Metzger, David A. Hubbard, and Glenn W. Barker. Word Biblical Commentary, 2nd ed. (Dallas, TX: Thomas Nelson, 2005), 339-340.

Minor Prophets, Major Message

Posted: December 1, 2012 in 99-Uncategorized

“O Israel, return unto the LORD thy God; for thou hast fallen by thine iniquity. Take with you words, and turn to the LORD” (Hosea 14:1). These words of Hosea are reflective of the Minor Prophet theology of repentance – a turning away from sin. This theological message is portrayed in some way in all of the books of the Minor Prophets but in particular in the books of Hosea, Micah and Malachi. In each of these books, we see a calling of the people to repentance not simply to improve morality but rather in preparation for the coming of the Messiah. In these books, we see these prophets lay out the charges against God’s people in great detail and let them know the reasons for the judgments against them but then each offers a message of hope. If through judgment, the Jewish people repent, then, they will receive the blessings associated with the establishment of the Messiah’s kingdom. Clearly, the Old Testament is not Old. This message rings clear today as much as it did in ancient Israel.


In Hosea, God gives Hosea a command to “Go, take to yourself a wife of whoredom and have children of whoredom, for the land commits great whoredom by forsaking the Lord” (Hosea 1:2). The story of Hosea and his harlot wife, Gomer, pictures God’s relationship with Israel. God is the faithful husband who is married to an unfaithful wife, Israel. The return of Gomer to her life of harlotry is an example of Israel’s cycles of rebellion against God. Homer’s reaction of buying her back from slavery, when he had all reasons not to do so, is an example of God’s faithfulness to His chosen ones, the people of Israel. The vast majority of the book symbolically displays Israel’s unfaithfulness to their covenant relationship with God. The fact that this message is visually played out in the marriage of Hosea to Gomer makes Hosea’s words to Israel all the more powerful. He is living the message that he brings. The political uncertainty of the period in which this book is written speaks of unfaithfulness of Israel. Hosea was written mostly before the death of the northern kingdom’s ruler’s (Jeroboam II) in 753 BC. As Rooker states, “the period was characterized by political vacillation between obedience to Assyria and rebellion against Egypt.”[1] During this time period, the kings of Israel, basically, allied themselves with whichever foreign power that would give them the best deal. Rather than relying on God to provide for them and for their protection, they decided to attempt to control their own destiny through alliances with the power broking nations around them. Gomer’s harlotry after her covenant of marriage is symbolic of this political reality of Israel. Yet, we come to Chapter 14, all of the symbolism is through. The final message to Israel as a whole is the same as Hosea’s message to Gomer through his redemption of her from slavery. We read, “say to him, “Take away all iniquity; accept what is good, and we will pay with bulls the vows of our lips. Assyria shall not save us; we will not ride on horses; and we will say no more, ‘Our God,’to the work of our hands. In you the orphan finds mercy” (Hosea 14:2b-3). Hosea goes onto state that God will heal them of their apostasy. The key to it all is repentance. God’s faithfulness to his promises to His chosen people, regardless of their past sin, is a message that resonates in the New Testament. Paul quotes Hosea in Romans 9:25-26 to demonstrate God unconditional love for all who come to Him in repentance. According to Barker the message of Paul was that by using the example of the restoration of Israel, no matter their past sins, to demonstrate that the Gentiles that God delights in making people that are not his people into His people.[2] No past is so greatly disturbing to God that cannot be restored through repentance. Through repentance all will share in the Messianic future in which God says, “I will be like the dew to Israel; he shall blossom like the lily” (Hosea 14:5). I think Peter says it best when he writes that “The Lord is not slow to fulfill his promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance” (2 Peter 3:9).


In Micah 6:8, we find the basic message of repentance again when we read, “He has told you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your God?” Repentance requires submission to our Father. To submit our will to His requires humility. As with Hosea, Micah’s message is one that shows how God’s judgment is tempered with mercy. His mercy, though, is contingent upon repentance. According to Rooker, “Micah prophesied during the reigns of Jotham (750-732), Ahaz (735-715), and Hezakiah (729-686), kings of Judah,…Micah ministered in a time characterized by both political and social unrest, although the period was one of the most economically prosperous times in Israel’s history.”[3]Thus, Micah mostly likely was written prior to the 722 BC conquest of the northern kingdom by Assyria. Micah message of coming judgment was out of step with what Israelites perceived as a period of unending prosperity which must be because God was pleased with them. Micah was a contemporary of the prophet Amos. Whereas, Amos’ message was one calling out Israel for its treatment of the poor, Micah calls out the religious and business leaders of the day for their greed which resulted in the oppression of the poor. As Bratcher states,


“By the time Micah began his ministry, Isaiah of Jerusalem had already been addressing the same questions for 20 years. The Northern Kingdom had already been destroyed, or would be in a matter of months. And as both prophets looked at the Southern Kingdom of Judah, they saw much the same conditions as had existed in the Northern Kingdom. Judah’s future was not certain. But both Isaiah and Micah consistently proclaimed that a change, a return to faithfulness to God, was essential if the Southern Kingdom was to have any future.”[4]


Micah repeatedly throughout his book offers up the hope of repentance to a nation that is destined for judgment. These save-yourself-before-it-is-too-late commentaries can be found in Micah 2:12-13; 4:1-5:15; and 7:8-20. Otherwise, the judgment was coming and it was sure. However, Micah stresses that there will be a remnant that hears the call because of the promise to Abraham and in the promises of the Law of Moses. Since God is truth, He will not totally eviscerate His promise. His promises are everlasting. Thus, no matter what form that may take, Israel will play a role in God’s plans as enunciated in the promise to Abraham. However, only those who submit themselves fully to the spirit of the Law of Moses will be in a right relationship with God. Through them, the Abrahamic promise, to be a blessing to all peoples, will be executed (Genesis 12:3, Micah 4:1-4). Through its Messianic prophecies forthtelling the first and second advents of Christ, Micah 5:2 is captured in Matthew 2:6 to tell us that Christ was born in Bethlehem and that the Messiah is here to usher in the last days promised by Micah (Micah 4:1, 5:10). With these tie-ins of Micah to the NT, the message to Christian believers is clear that regardless of wealth or circumstance, we must walk humbly before the Lord and seek justice, love mercy.


In Malachi, it is appropriate placed at the end of the Minor Prophets and at the end of the OT canon. In Malachi more so than any other prophetic book, the language is very clear, lacking symbolism and is straight to the point. In other words, in Malachi, the gloves come off. Like Micah and Hosea, Malachi spends the majority of his book indicting the Jewish people for their failures in maintaining their covenant relationship with God. In contrast to Micah and Hosea, however, the indictments of the people are reviewed from the point of view of God himself. As stated in my research paper on this prophet’s book, Malachi basically accuses the Jewish people of giving God their leftovers – what’s left after all the choice foods have been taken. Micah says this leftover mentality permeates the whole society from its spiritual leaders down to the everyday person on the street. They were lackluster in their worship of God, their service to God, their sacrifices to God and in their financial stewardship toward God. In Malachi we see God saying that He is the Sovereign of the Universe and that He deserves to be honored as such. Malachi says that God deserves our very best in everything that we do. In Malachi 1:6-14, we see him indict the spiritual leaders, the priests, for their lackluster leadership of worship, for their acceptance of less than perfect sacrifices, their lack of study of God’s Word, and their lack of belief in what they were doing such their leadership was responsible for people stumbling in the walk with God. Next, in chapter 2 we see him attack the nation in their lack of honor for God in bringing their leftover animals for sacrifices, for their willingly marrying women who do not worship God, their lack of honor for their covenant of marriage with the wives of their youth. In chapter 3, he chastises the nation for their lack of honor toward God with respect for the tithe. In each of these chapters, the solution is repentance. To return to God is to turn away from lackluster worship of God. To return to God is not making ourselves God and picking and choosing which covenant requirements we want to keep. The road to repentance is complete submission to our covenant relationship with our Sovereign God – giving him the due honor He deserves. This sentiment is echoed in the New Testament Revelation 3:15-18 where Jesus rebukes the church at Laodicea for being lackluster, halfhearted (i.e. lukewarm). In chapter 4 of Malachi, he echoes the sentiments of Micah and Hosea, repentance of those who will hear the message will lead to a restoration of God’s people under the kingship of the Messiah. Those who do not hear this message will be destined for eternal damnation. Repentance is the key. As the New Testament tells us in James 4:8, “draw near to God and He will draw near to you.” The message of Malachi to modern day believers is that through honoring God with our time, our talents, our service and our resources through humble submission to the covenant with God as laid out in His Word, we will experience blessing – submission leads to freedom in Christ!


Thus, as you can see, the message of these three books is loud and clear. Repent! Turn away from establishing yourself on the throne where God belongs. Lose your pride in who you are. God is the Master not us. Honor him. In honoring Him, He will bless us. We must trust that!

[1] Rooker, Mark F., “The Book of Hosea” (Chapter 27) in Eugene H. Merrill, Mark F. Rooker, and Michael A. Grisanti, The World and the Word: an Introduction to the Old Testament (Nashville, TN.: B&H Academic, 2011), 415.


[2] Barker, Kenneth, “Hosea” in Frank E Gaebelein, ed., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Volume 7, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi (Nashville, TN: Zondervan Publishing, 1987), 651.


[3] Rooker, Mark F., “The Book of Micah” (Chapter 32) in in Eugene H. Merrill, Mark F. Rooker, and Michael A. Grisanti, The World and the Word: an Introduction to the Old Testament (Nashville, TN.: B&H Academic, 2011), 453.

[4] Bratcher, Dennis, “The Book of Micah” in “The Voice:Biblical and Theological Resources for the Growing Christian (, accessed December 1, 2012.